Modeling, Design, and Control of Military V2MG2V Microgrid Systems

Principal Investigators: Panos Papalambros, University of Michigan, pyp(at)
Faculty: Tulga Ersal, Ian Hiskens, Huei Peng, Anna Stefanopoulou, Jeffrey L. Stein, University of Michigan
Student/Post-doc: Changsun Ahn, Abigail Mechtenberg, Diane Peters, John Whitefoot, University of Michigan
Government: Erik Kallio, Paul Makar, Jillian McDonald, U.S. Army TARDEC
Industry: Peter Lilienthal, HOMER Energy

Project duration was 2010 to 2011.

Vehicle-to-Microgrid-to-Vehicle schematicOur research problem is that design, scheduling, and regulation of vehicle supported microgrids are coupled despite their different time scales, requiring an integrated approach for successful V2MG2V (vehicle to microgrid to vehicle) implementation. This project has three major goals:

Modeling: Create a V2MG2V modeling framework that is modular and scalable, so that new components (e.g., electric vehicles, generators, renewable resources) can be easily added or removed to scale the system up or down. The framework allows use of different representations for a given device or system to scale up or down the fidelity of the model. Thus, if the focus is to study a particular component connected to the grid, the model of that particular component could be easily replaced with a higher fidelity representation. Models allow analysis at different time scales, for example, analyzing the sustainability of the micro-grid over several months vs. analyzing the behavior of the micro-grid under sudden changes in power supply. Tactical vs. strategic benefits can be thus properly explored.

Design: Analyze and determine optimal sizing and component selection of all micro-grid components, including PHEVs, renewable and non-renewable power sources, and energy storage devices. Analysis and optimization include the objectives of reducing fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and micro-grid sustainability over long time periods (e.g., islanding of up to six months). Design and local control decisions are coordinated with micro-grid system control strategies to provide an overall system optimal operation that maximizes performance with minimum capital and operating costs, balancing tactical and strategic requirements of both the base and the vehicle fleet.

Control: Develop stochastic dynamic models and design a new energy management algorithm for the micro-grid power system to integrate renewable power sources and PHEVs efficiently. The optimal control strategy includes both short time scale effects, such as the electrical dynamics and power quality during source interruptions, as well as long time scale strategies to minimize fossil fuel use and GHG emissions.


  • M. Surprenant, I. Hiskens, G. Venkataramanan, "Phase Locked Loop Control of Inverters in a Microgrid", Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, Phoenix, AZ, September 2011.
  • T. Ersal, C. Ahn, I. A. Hiskens, H. Peng, and J. L. Stein, "Impact of controlled plug-in EVs on microgrids: A military microgrid example," IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, Detroit, MI USA, 2011. (IEEE site)
  • D. L. Peters, A. R. Mechtenberg, J. W. Whitefoot, and P. Y. Papalambros, "Model predictive control of amicrogrid with plug-in vehicles: Error modeling and the role of prediction horizon," ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Arlington, VA, 2011. (mirror site)
  • Whitefoot, J.W., Mechtenberg, A.R., Peters, D.L., Papalambros, P.Y., “Optimal Component Sizing and Forward-Looking Optimal Dispatch of an Electrical Microgrid for Energy Storage Planning,” Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference IDETC/CIE 2011, August 29-31, 2011, Washington, DC, USA. DETC2011-48513. DAC (Design Automation Conference) Best Paper Award.
    doi:10.1115/DETC2011-48513 (mirror site)
  • T. Ersal, C. Ahn, I. A. Hiskens, H. Peng, A. G. Stefanopoulou, and J. L. Stein, "On the effect of DC source voltage on inverter-based frequency and voltage regulation in a military microgrid," American Control Conference (ACC), 2012 , vol., no., pp.2965-2971, 27-29 June 2012. (IEEE site)
  • Changsun Ahn, Huei Peng, "Decentralized voltage control to minimize distribution losses in an islanded microgrid," Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, 2012. 
  • Changsun Ahn, Huei Peng, "Decentralized voltage control to minimize distribution power loss of microgrids," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol.4, No.3, pp.1297-1304, Sept. 2013. 
  • T. Ersal, C. Ahn, D. L. Peters, J. W. Whitefoot, A. R. Mechtenberg, I. A. Hiskens, H. Peng, A. G. Stefanopoulou, P. Y. Papalambros, J. L. Stein, "Coupling Between Component Sizing and Regulation Capability in Microgrids", IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol.4, No.3, pp. 1576-1585, Sept. 2013.