ARC Collaborative Research Seminar Series
Fall 2015

ARC seminars are free and open to the general public. Center members can download the presentation files on our password-access online portal iARC. Non-ARC members please email with your requests.

Parking & directions inquires: Contact Kathie Wolney ( by 2:00 p.m. the day before the seminar

Remote attendance via tele/video conference: Contact William Lim (

Refreshments will be served 9:15-9:30am. The talks will begin at 9:30 a.m. sharp.
Venue: 1180 Duderstadt Center

September 25, Friday (9:15a.m. - 11a.m.)
University of Michigan, UM North Campus, Duderstadt Center, room 1180

Thrust Area 2: Human Centered Modeling and Simulation

1. Autonomous Research Pilot Initiative (ARPI) to Construct a Privileged Sensing Framework (PSF) - A Revolutionary Method to Foster True Human-Autonomy Collaboration
Invited Speaker: Mr. Victor Paul, Electrical Engineer, U.S. Army TARDEC

        Current methods for human-autonomy interaction are largely implemented through rigid schemes that transfer control between humans and autonomy. TARDEC has teamed with the Army and the Air Force Research labs (ARL & AFRL) under the DoD funded Autonomous Research Pilot Initiative (ARPI) to construct a privileged sensing framework (PSF), a revolutionary method to foster true human-autonomy collaboration. The PSF framework incorporates insights into operator state, capabilities, and intention to dynamically influence the human-autonomy interaction. Last spring, TARDEC’s Motion Base Technologies (MBT) team completed the first of two ARPI-PSF human-subjects studies on its Ride Motion Simulator to attempt for find objective, physiological measures to predict human trust in autonomous systems. Mr. Paul, acting Team Leader for TARDEC’s MBT team, will present a brief overview of the MBT team, it’s partnership with ARL and the first ARPI-PSF experiment.

Bio: Mr. Victor Paul is the Principal Investigator responsible for the design, development and execution of motion based simulation experiments as applied to the research of human centric vehicle design and soldier cognition and state. As the Principal Motion Systems Engineer on the Motion Base Technologies team, Mr. Paul is responsible for the conduct of motion based simulation experiments involving both humans and hardware in the loop on both the Ride Motion Simulator (RMS) and the Crew Station/Turret Motion Base Simulator (CS/TMBS). He holds a M.S.E. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Michigan and B.S.E. in Electrical Engineering from Oakland University.

2. Improving Vehicle Safety and Accommodation for Soldiers (projects link)
PI: Dr. Matt Reed, UMTRI, University of Michigan

        Designing vehicles for Soldier safety requires detailed knowledge of seated postures, space claim, and restraint requirements. We will describe the results of ongoing work to improve the tools and methods used to improve the safety of military vehicles. Using data from the Seated Soldier Study, we have developed new statistical models of driver and squad vision and clearance requirements. New modeling and simulation methods are being developed for application to seat design and vehicle layout. We will also describe preliminary results of a program to improve frontal impact protection for equipped Soldiers through sled testing and simulation-based optimization.

October 9, Friday (9:15a.m. - 11a.m.)
University of Michigan, UM North Campus, Duderstadt Center, room 1180

Thrust Area 5: Vehicle System Integration, Optimization, and Robustness

Projects presenting:
1. Strategic Adaptive Vehicle Systems Feasibility Study (project link)
Contributors: Mert Egilmez, Emrah Bayrak, Xingyu (Gavin) Li, Jong Min (Sky) Park, Bogdan Epureanu, Panos Papalambros, University of Michigan; Edward Umpfenbach, Erik Anderson, Richard Gerth, U.S. Army TARDEC; Mark Rupersburg, GDLS

        The value of modularity in ground vehicles to the Army and other services has been a topic of much debate for decades. Decision support tools are needed to enable Army leadership to assess the cost and benefits of modularity compared to mission-specific (conventional) vehicle platforms. This assessment needs to include numerous considerations including mission completion, total lifecycle cost, maintenance, repair and personnel requirements. The scope of this project is a "Lego-like" modularity. Assuming the technical feasibility of effective modularity is possible, we will describe a modeling approach for a vehicle fleet built in a modular fashion that will allow us to assess the value of modularity while meeting the needs of specific operational scenarios. We will demonstrate the simulation results for both conventional and modular fleets given a mission scenario provided by TARDEC.

2. Reliability Assessment, Warranty and Design of Repairable Systems Using Renewal Processes (project link)
Contributors: Zissimos P. Mourelatos, Themistoklis Koutsellis, Vijitashwa Pandey, Oakland University; Matthew Castanier, U.S. Army TARDEC

        Most engineering systems are repairable. Their components can be renewed or repaired if system failure occurs, to put the system back into service. The reliability of a repairable system will be defined and methods to assess it and use it in design will be highlighted. We will first present theoretical and practical developments such as the deduction of system architecture (fault tree) from experimental data, and reliability allocation using cost-performance tradeoffs. Examples will demonstrate all concepts. We will then present initial results on a generalized renewal process model based on the concept of virtual or effective age. The model accounts for repair assumptions such as “same-as-old,” “good-as-new,” “better-than-old-but-worse-than-new” and “worse-than-old,” and is suitable for reset and depot maintenance strategies as well as warranty prediction and forecasting of vehicle fleets. An automotive warranty forecasting example will be presented. All developments support TARDEC’s Fleet Maintenance Simulation (FMS) software tool.

November 6, Friday (9:15a.m. - 11a.m.)
University of Michigan, UM North Campus, Duderstadt Center, room 1180

Thrust Area 3: High Performance Structures and Materials &
Thrust Area 5: Vehicle System Integration, Optimization, and Robustness

Projects presenting:
1. Design Optimization of a Meta-Material Tank Track Pad (project link)
Zachary Satterfield, Neehar Kulkarni, Georges M. Fadel (PI), Gang Li, Nicole Coutris, (Clemson University); Matthew Castanier, David Ostberg, (U.S. Army TARDEC)

        A meta-material with low hysteresis loss and a compliance comparable to that of a tank track pad elastomer is currently being designed. The goal is to eliminate hysteric losses, conduct heat away and mimic the behavior of the elastomer. The nonlinear strain response of rubber under uniaxial compression serves as the target for the design of the meta-material. Current methods for unit-cell based meta-material design using commercial Topology Optimization are not appropriate for large deformations and non-linear materials. A new method is proposed to design geometries of unit cells for an elastic meta-material by combining structural components that exhibit geometric nonlinearities during deformation. A parametric optimization process is then carried out on the selected designs to converge to the target material response. Two optimized geometries closely meeting the requirement are presented and compared to the original track pad under both uniform compression and wheel loading conditions.

2. Random Vibrations, Fatigue Life Estimation and Accelerated Testing for Vehicle Systems (project link)
Monica Majcher, Zissimos P. Mourelatos (PI), Vickie Tsianika (Oakland U.); Igor Baseski, Amandeep Singh (U.S. Army TARDEC); John Skarakis (BETA CAE Systems USA)

        Fatigue life estimation, reliability and durability are of paramount importance in acquisition, maintenance and operation of vehicle systems. Different fatigue damage models are commonly used based on Miner’s linear damage model and simple cycle counting techniques based on peak stress counting. These cycle counting methods are only valid for narrow band processes. Fatigue life is random due to the stochastic load, inherent variability of material properties, and uncertainty in the definition of the S-N curve. We will present an overview of developments in random vibrations and fatigue life estimation of vehicle systems under stochastic loading. Fatigue life and its statistics are calculated for narrow or wide-band stochastic loads using the state-of-the-art four-point rainflow counting technique with either analytical or experimental stress signals. An accelerated testing approach based on fatigue life estimation will be presented for stationary random loading. Experimental verification at TARDEC’s Physical Simulation lab will be provided using a vibratory beam.

December 3, Thursday (9:15a.m. - 11a.m.)
Wayne State University, Engineering Building, Hall of Fame

Thrust Area 4: Advanced and Hybrid Powertrains - Fuels

Projects presenting:
1. Modeling the Behavior of Jet Fuels in Diesel Engines (project link)
Doohyun Kim, Jason Martz, Angela Violi (PI), University of Michigan
This talk will be rescheduled.

        In this talk we report on our latest results on the formulation of a six-component surrogate (n-dodecane, n-decane, iso-cetane, iso-octane, decalin, toluene) that reproduces a wide range of properties for conventional and alternative jet fuels. Specifically, we developed a non- linear regression equation to correlate mixture composition with the Derived Cetane Number. Newly formulated surrogates for three jet fuels including Jet-A, IPK, and S-8 successfully captured the compositional characteristics and various physical and chemical properties of the target fuels. A detailed kinetic mechanism was assembled to describe the combustion behavior of the surrogate mixture. The mechanism was further reduced in size to be used in CFD simulations of reacting spray in a constant chamber.

2. Simulation and Validation of JP8 and SASOL-IPK Combustion in Diesel Engines (project link)
N.A.Henein (PI), M.J.Trivedi, K.Udayachalam, U.Joshi, Z.Zheng, Wayne State University

        The two component mechanism developed at Wayne State University and presented at 2014 ARC meeting is applied in a 3-D simulation of JP8 spray combustion and its validation in the single cylinder PNGV diesel engine and Caterpillar CAT C7 six cylinder military diesel engine. In addition, the two component surrogate mechanism is used in a 0-D simulation of the autoignition of a homogeneous gaseous mixture of JP8 and air in a constant volume environment and depicted the typical NTC regime. A three component surrogate for SASOL-IPK is developed and the pressure and rate of heat release traces at varying initial temperatures in Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) are found to be in agreement. Future work will be for matching the autoignition and combustion of SASOL-IPK and its surrogate in the single cylinder PNGV diesel engine. In addition, the three component surrogate mechanism will be validated in experiments conducted on CAT C7 diesel engine using SASOL-IPK and its blends with JP8.

ARC members can download the presentation files on our password-access online portal iARC.
Non-ARC members please email with your requests.